Botanical description: Naturally occurring in dunes along the east coast of North America from Mexico to Newfoundland, Solidago sempervirens is well adapted to harsh, urban conditions and tolerant of lean soils, drought, wind, exposure and salt. Plants can sprout from such unlikely places as the base of street signs, with only a sliver of exposed soil. Heavy shade proves to be one of the few environmental conditions that impair the growth of this goldenrod. Generally two to three feet tall, seaside goldenrod may reach a height of six feet in richer soils and full sun. The tall inflorescence is held above a basal rosette of waxy, evergreen leaves. This goldenrod’s somewhat succulent vegetation contributes to its ability to thrive where other plants cannot. Solidago sempervirens does not spread by rhizome as many other goldenrods do, but produces off-shoots at the crown of mature perennial plants, slowly forming large masses over time. It readily spreads via its wind-dispersed seeds, which number in the hundreds. Seaside Goldenrod bears the iconic, golden flower panicles of all goldenrods, from late July to November. The flowers are a major food source for the migrating monarch butterfly as well as a countless array of wildlife.